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Climate Action

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Adaptation to climate change
EU Action

EU adaptation to climate change

Adaptation means anticipating the adverse effects of climate change and taking appropriate action to prevent or minimise the damage they can cause, or taking advantage of opportunities that may arise. It has been shown that well planned, early adaptation action saves money and lives later.

Examples of adaptation measures include: using scarce water resources more efficiently; adapting building codes to future climate conditions and extreme weather events; building flood defences and raising the levels of dykes; developing drought-tolerant crops; choosing tree species and forestry practices less vulnerable to storms and fires; and setting aside land corridors to help species migrate.

Adaptation strategies are needed at all levels of administration: at the local, regional, national, EU and also the international level. Due to the varying severity and nature of climate impacts between regions in Europe, most adaptation initiatives will be taken at the regional or local levels. The ability to cope and adapt also differs across populations, economic sectors and regions within Europe.

The Commission adopted an EU adaptation strategy in April 2013 which has been welcomed by the Member States. Complementing the activities of Member States, the strategy supports action by promoting greater coordination and information-sharing between Member States, and by ensuring that adaptation considerations are addressed in all relevant EU policies.

The EU’s role can be particularly appropriate when climate change impacts transcend borders of individual states - such as with river basins - and when impacts vary considerably across regions. The role of the EU can be especially useful to enhance solidarity among Member States and ensure that disadvantaged regions and those most affected by climate change are capable of taking the necessary measures to adapt.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is a scientific body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up s) to review and assess the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic information produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change Thousands of scientists from all over the world contribute to the work of the IPCC on a voluntary basis.

In 2007, the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report stated that warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as evidenced from observations at continental, regional and ocean basin scales worldwide. The observed 100-year warming trend (1906-2005) is 0,74°C, and the warmest years on record are all concentrated in the last decade. Other observed climate changes include changes in the Arctic, widespread changes in precipitation amounts, ocean salinity, wind patterns and aspects of extreme weather including droughts, heavy precipitation, heatwaves and the intensity of tropical cyclonesThe temperature increase is widespread over the globe and is greater at higher northern latitudes. Land regions have warmed faster than the oceans.

The IPCC also concluded in 2007 that most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. Other discernible human influences on climate comprehend ocean warming, continental-average temperatures, temperature extremes and wind patterns.

All existing climate models are consistent in showing a continued warming trend along the 21st century, though they differ in intensity depending on the amount of emissions expected and on the model used to project warming. In 2007, the likely range of global average warming was estimated to be between 1.1 and 6.4°C, relative to 1980-1999. In March 2009 the International Scientific Congress concluded that the worst-case IPCC scenario trajectories (or even worse) are being realised.

In January 2013 the European Environment Agency (EEA) published its latest report on Womens Eye Sunglasses Black Nero/Grigio 57 Valentino Rj3rt6RSH
. The presents evidence on climate trends and impacts in Europe, and future projections. Among the report's main faindings are:

Climate change (increases in temperature, changes in precipitation and decreases in ice and snow) is occurring globally and in Europe; some of these observed changes have established records in recent years. Observed climate change has already led to a wide range of impacts on environmental systems and society, and include:

Coasts and European seas : overall rise in sea levels; increase in ocean acidification, sea surface temperature and ocean heat content; earlier seasonal appearance of various marine species; northward expansion of some fish and plankton species.

Freshwater systems : changes in river flows, with decreases in southern and eastern and increases in other regions; increases in the reported number of floods, in the frequency and intensity of droughts (in particular in southern Europe), and in water temperature in rivers and lakes.

Observed impacts of climate change are projected to continue due to further climate change. The level of future impacts will depend on the magnitude of climate change and on socio‑economic and environmental factors. Vulnerability to climate change varies widely across regions and sectors in Europe. Particularly vulnerable regions include: Southern Europe and the Mediterranean basin (due to heat and droughts), the Alps (due to rapid melting of snow and ice), coastal zones, deltas and floodplains (due to sea level rise, intense rainfall, floods and storms) and Europe's far north, the Arctic and Outermost regions (due to increased global warming).

Economic sectors that rely strongly on certain temperatures and precipitation – from agriculture to forestry, fisheries, energy to tourism – are also highly vulnerable. Water availability and quality are also expected to be affected across Europe.

While society at large is expected to be affected, the most vulnerable (elderly, disabled and low-income households) are likely to be more susceptible to climate impacts.

Biodiversity and ecosystems

In basketball terms, the problem with drafting a guy like Andrew Wiggins is that he might get really expensive right when he gets really good. Or he might take his talents to Los Angeles or Manhattan or South Beach. Teams should probably assume that any surplus value from a draft pick comes from his first four or five seasons and draft on that basis.

There’s a flip-side for sophomores like Marcus Smart. They might get really expensive right when they start to stink — unlike freshmen, sophomores typically begin to decline after about five seasons in the league. An incautious team might sign such a player to a massive extension Modal Scarf exotic1 by VIDA VIDA fDWvG
, asin the case of Rudy Gay and the Memphis Grizzlies . A rational team, however, should be able to resist that temptation — or even exploit other teams’ failure to appreciate the aging curve by trading a player like Smart right when he’s at his peak.

There’s another benefit to drafting sophomores. In addition to being slightly better than freshmen in their first few NBA seasons, they come slightly cheaper. The table below compares the win shares produced by each class of player in itsfirst four NBA seasons 10

More precisely, the first four NBA seasons after the players are drafted. If a player is drafted but doesn’t participate in the league, I count him as having zero value.

The data on the value associated with a particular draft position is slightly noisy, so I’ve estimated it by calculating a trend line on the natural logarithm of the draft pick number. The method is highly similar to the one I used in the Hawaii 18karat Gold Earrings one size Buccellati X6keF
, although it’s calibrated based on a player’s first four seasons rather than his first five and considers draft picks since 1995 instead of 1985.

Exploiting a 10 percent edge won’t ensure a team a title. The Celtics will need some luck to build a championship contender around Smart, Rondo and rotation players like Sullinger and Kelly Olynyk. The sophomore strategy isn’t sexy, and other players chosen on Thursday have higher upsides than Smart. But the Celtics are playing the percentages while other teams are playing the lottery.

The Phoenix Suns , who traded their 2007 first-round pick to acquire him.

Technically speaking, my data includes the top 30 draft picks from each season rather than first-rounders . There are currently 30 picks in the first round, but there were fewer before the league added the Charlotte Bobcats in 2004.

The data on the value associated with a particular draft position is slightly noisy, so I’ve estimated it by calculating a trend line on the natural logarithm of the draft pick number. The method is highly similar to the one I used in the , although it’s calibrated based on a player’s first four seasons rather than his first five and considers draft picks since 1995 instead of 1985.

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Rebecca Safier
About the Author

Rebecca graduated with her Master's in Adolescent Counseling from the Harvard Graduate School of Education. She has years of teaching and college counseling experience and is passionate about helping students achieve their goals and improve their well-being. She graduated magna cum laude from Tufts University and scored in the 99th percentile on the SAT.

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Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!

David Mattson

2015/10/15 下午9:10:58

My 15 year old was denied taking his PSAT-10 in his sophomore year ( yesterday ) because his school only has 75 tests to take. He signed up at #78. He is an AP straight A student. His guidance counselor told him it was no big deal to take. I am furious !!! Please help and / or advise !!!! A Very Concerned Parent

Rebecca Safier

2015/10/31 下午9:47:48

Hi David, I'm sorry to hear your son isn't able to take the PSAT 10 at his school. It may be possible for him to test at another school - you can search schools here: and then contact them to discuss whether this would be possible.I also wonder if his school could order more test books, as this seems to be an option through January 15: he isn't able to take the PSAT-10 in the end, the good news is that he can still gain a lot by taking self-timed PSAT practice tests - even simulating testing room conditions - and prepping for next year's PSAT. Even if he doesn't get the real test experience this time around, he can still prepare himself well and achieve excellent scores next year, when the PSAT counts for National Merit. You can check out some PSAT/NMSQT practice materials and study tips in these guides: this information helps - ideally his school can order more test books in time for the administration.

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The closest good beach is about 30 km away at Hook of Holland . Here you will find a very fine sand beach with good swimming and enough entertainment.

For a more urban-party beach experience head to ACCESSORIES Hats Nan 4Y23b3
where you can find everything beach-party addicts dream about; Endless rows of beachside bars, restaurants and discothèques and a boulevard along a splendid fine-sand beach. It can get very crowded here. Take the train to Small Leather Goods Belts Eredi Del Duca kmkVr9I8d
Centraal Station and Tram 9 subsequently.


The main shopping areas in the center are the 51.919993 4.477304 Lijnbaan and the 51.920675 4.484503 Hoogstraat . Both are pedestrianised. The Lijnbaan , which runs straight south from the Weena (close to Rotterdam Centraal ) was the first pedestrianised shopping street in the world when it was built in 1953. Now it is more of an average shopping street with average shops. In weekends it's very crowded. Linking the Lijnbaan with the Hoogstraat is the 51.920066 4.480523 Beurstraverse , dubbed Koopgoot (Buying-gutter). A subterrainean passage, also connecting to Beurs metro station. It's all rather big and somewhat strange for a Dutch city, but it fits perfectly into the Rotterdam aspiration of being different. If you're looking for it, ask for the Koopgoot , as the official name is little known.

The Beurstraverse gives direct access to the city's main department stores:

The Markthal in the night
The Markthal from outside

There are about 12 larger and smaller markets dotted around Rotterdam. Most of them are enjoyable places to walk through.

51.920126 4.486789 Markthal , Ds. Jan Scharpstraat 298 ( Binnenrotte, Metro: Blaak ). Market stands: M-Sa 10:00-20:00, Su 12:00-18:00; Albert Heijn: M-Sa 08:00-21:00, Su 10:00-20:00; Bars and restaurants: 10:00-00:00 . Opened in 2014 by a Dutch princess (who else!), It is a quite remarkable building which is worth a visit per se . It more like a hybrid between a market and a shopping centre. Besides the large market hall, there are also residential, office sections, retail sections. Last but not least the Markthal houses a wide variety of bars, food stalls and restaurants. Enjoy meals or bites from mediterean or asian origin or try the famous Rotterdam fries of Bram Ladage. ( updated Sep 2017 )

With a typical (at least for the Netherlands) Rotterdam skyline of skyscrapers, river Nieuwe Maas and Hotel New York Fenix Food Factory offers food/bites and beers on a unique venue. The building itself is an old warehouse which did not lose much of its original character.

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